Fama Fraternitatis - 1614

Wiewohl wir nun wohl wissen, daß es umb ein ziemliches noch nicht an dem, da wieder unserm Verlangen oder auch anderer Hoffnung mit allgemeiner Reformation divini et humani, solle genug geschehen, ist es doch nicht unbillich, daß, ehe die Sonne auffgehet, sie zuvor ein HELL oder dunkel liecht in den Himmel bringt und unter dessen etliche wenige, die sich werden angeben, zusammen tretten, unsere Fraternitet mit der Zahl und Ansehen des gewünschten und von Fr.R.C. fürgeschriebenen Philosophischen Canons, einen glücklichen Anfang machen oder ja in unserer Schätz (die uns nimmermehr aufgehen können) mit uns in Demut und Liebe genießen die Mühsamkeit dieser Welt überzuckern und in den Wunderwerken Gottes nicht also blind umbgehen.

Vi vet dock att det enligt vår åstundan och andras förväntningar efter någon tid kommer en allmän reformation av både gudomliga och mänskliga ting. Ty innan solen går upp, upplyses himlen av
MORGONRODNADENS ljus. I väntan på denna reformation församlas några få som med sitt antal skall utöka vårt brödraskap, höja dess anseende och stärka dess förhoppningar och ge de av Fr.R.C. föreskrivna Filosofiska Canons en lycklig begynnelse. I all ödmjukhet och kärlek skall dessa nytillkomna tillsammans med oss dela våra skatter, som aldrig skall förgås, och så lindra denna världens möda och inte längre vandra ovetande om kunskapen om Guds underbara verk.

Howbeit we know after a time there will now be a general reformation, both of divine and humane things, according to our desire, and the expectation of others: for it is fitting, that before the rising of the Sun, there should appear and break forth AURORA, or some clearness, or divine light in the sky; and so in the mean time some few, which shall give their names, may joyn together, thereby to increase the number and respect of our Fraternity, and make a happy and wished for beginning of our Philosophical Canons, prescribed to us by our brother R.C. and be partakers with us of our treasures (which never can fail or be wasted) in all humility, and love to be eased of this worlds labor, and not walk so blindly in the knowledge of the wonderful works of God.


Det brittiska ordenssällskapet Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn och den tyska Frimurarlogen L'Aurore Naissante, vilket grundades i London 1888 respektive Frankfurt-am-Main 1807, delade på samma hebreiska namn Chevrah Zerach Bequr Aur, förevisat i gyllene gult vid bloggens huvud, vilket ordagrannt kan översättas till “Stigande Gryningsljusets Sällskap”. Denna tyska Rosenkorsiska Frimurarloge i Frankfurt, vilket måste anses vara det ursprungliga modertemplet till GOLDEN DAWN, kallade sig på tyska även Loge sur Aufgehenden Morgenröthe, vilket kan översättas till “Gryende Morgonrodnadens Loge”. Detta skiljer sig åt från den engelska seden att översätta orden Bequr Aur till “Golden Dawn” eller “Gyllene Gryningen”. Med anledning av Rosenkorstraditionens tyska ursprung är en mer korrekt översättning av Bequr Aur, genom franskans L'Aurore Naissante och tyskans Aufgehenden Morgenröthe, inget annat än GRYENDE MORGONRODNADEN. Denna hänvisning till ett stigande gryningsljus, morgonrodnad eller aurora är en klar hänvisning till den allmäna reformationen omnämnt i det ovan citerade stycket från Fama Fraternitatis. Denna blogg har dock valt att behålla den försvenskade anglo-saxiska termen GYLLENE GRYNINGEN för att denna, invand som den är, lättare associeras med den Rosenkorsiska tradition som här ämnas att framställas.

Licht, Leben, Liebe

fredag 31 december 2010

Early Swedish Rosicrucians


I found a highly interesting reference to Sweden and the early Rosicrucians just recently, made by the French esotericist Jacques-Etienne Marconis de Negre, one of the founders of the Memphis Rite in 1839, which I would like to share with you on this New Year Day’s Eve.

In 1849 Marconis de Negre published Le Sanctuaire de Memphis (“The Sanctuary of Memphis”), which basically presents an sligthly alternative Templar legend regarding the origin of the Rosicrucian and Masonic Orders. It starts off with the usual account of Ormus, his conversion to Christianity by S:t Mark, the union of his school with that of the Essenians and other Jewish sects. But where it gets really interesting is where we reach the age of the crusades. Let me quote the pertinent part:
Untill 1118, Ormus’ disciples were the only depositories of the ancient Wisdom of Egypt (purified by Christianity), as well as of the Templar Science. These were known as Knights of Palestine or Rosicrucian Brethren of the Orient, that the (Masonic) Rite of Memphis regards as its immediate founders.

In 1150, eighty-one of them arrived at Sweden, having Garimont as their leader, and presented themselves to the archbishop of Upsala, to whom they bequeathed the heritage of Masonic knowledge. These eighty-one Masons established Free-Masonry in Europe.

After the death of Jacques de Molay, the Scottish Templars, apostates at the king’s (Robert Bruce’s) instigation, gathered under the standards of a new Order that this prince had instituted. The receptions in this Order were based in those of the Order of the Temple. Here is the origin of the Scottish Masonic Rite – and of the other Masonic Rites as well.

The Scottish Templars were excommunicated by Larmenius in 1324. This date agrees with the one given by Br. Chereau, regarding the separation of the Masons of Edinbourg with the Masons of Memphis: 1322, which is two years earlier.

The Masons of Memphis rested faithful to the ancient traditions; the others founded a new Rite, called Rite of Heredom de Kilwinning or of Scotland.

Thus, from the late 14th century, two Rites exist: the Rite of Memphis or of the Orient and the Scottish one. Both continue to attract followers all over Europe.
This reference to Upsala in a Masonic context I have never seen before. Upsala is the former Capital of Sweden, and was a centre of commerce during the Viking age. Today it is a city of learning, housing one of the greatest Universities in Sweden. There are also supposed to be remnants of some Swedish churches originally built by Templars. Historical research shows that there was a quite significant presence of Templars in Sweden during the reign of House of Bjelbo (also known as the House of Folkung), which went so far to even embrace members of this Royal House as members of the Templar Order, through which the latter received both land and mansions from the former.

But this connection of the Masonic and Rosicrucian legend made to Sweden is original. According to this legend Masonry was introduced to Sweden one and a half century prior to it finding its ground in Scotland. Furthermore, masonry of Sweden is here portrayed as being the esoteric and Rosicrucian one while the Scottish one is practically labelled as exoteric, being that of Blue Lodge Freemasonry. Even if this is just another of several fanciful Rosicrucian legends, I find this one particularly fancy and likable being a Swede.

I wish you all a Happy New Year!


onsdag 8 december 2010

Prejudice against Magic and the legacy of the Golden Rosy+Cross


A while ago I stumbled across someone asking why major organizations calling themselves “Rosicrucian” talks degradory about magic and what members of any of the Golden Dawn Orders had to say regarding this. The fact is, as it seems, that most organizations which uses the words “Rosicrucian” or “Rosy Cross” in their name (some of them even trade marking the word “Rosicrucian”) seems to have a very low opinion of magical practice and the magical world view which is common in the Golden Dawn Tradition.

Firstly, the big reason for these “Rosicrucian” organizations to take such a stance against magic is simply out of appeal to the greater mass. In comparison with the organized Golden Dawn community (and also the Thelemic) the big-name “Rosicrucian” organizations have a very large following which may be comparable to world-wide Freemasonry in magintude. Simply put, these “Rosicrucian” organizations are for the many, G∴D∴ is for the few. The level of training and study in any Golden Dawn organization will put most people off who have found comfort in any of the big name “Rosicrucian” organizations. On the other hand, as with Freemasonry, the big name “Rosicrucian” organizations are also quite wealthy and in most cases are able to present very impressive infrastructure and material means to present not only voluminous correspondence courses but also impressive grand scale lodge spacings, etc.

A.M.O.R.C. Temple

I happen to have a past in one of these big name “Rosicrucian” Orders, the A.M.O.R.C. (“Ancient and Mystical Order of the Rosy Cross”), but left that organization because of it frequently branding anything magical or occult as being “superstitious”, and contrasting it to mysticism. I soon went over to the B.O.T.A. (“Builders of the Adytum”), while still being a member of A.M.O.R.C., through some contacts there, and from B.O.T.A. into the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (again through some contacts in the B.O.T.A.), as I lacked instruction on Ceremonial Magic in the former organization; thus out of necessity the one led into the other. The level of study and practice in the B.O.T.A. is on an entire different level compared to A.M.O.R.C. (already in its early levels), and the practical work in the G∴D∴ on yet a higher level of complexity compared to Paul Foster Case’s and Ann Davies’ correspondence courses in the B.O.T.A. Thus, my real WORK began with entering the Hermetic Order Order of the Golden Dawn.

But already in the B.O.T.A. you have traditional occult teaching in its courses which is based upon the Qabalistic and Hermetic system of the Golden Dawn (remember P.F. Case was a former Adept of the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega). One such example is the use of the Tarot (which seems to be lacking in A.M.O.R.C.), and later the Tattwas, which is clearly occult in its orientation. Ann Davies developed this further and made it even more “magical” in its application. In Case’s early papers for the School of Ageless Wisdom and his Chapter (the equivalent of G∴D∴ Temple) papers there are quite a lot of teachings regarding Ceremonial Magic. What Case opposed was the use of “Enochian Magic”, not magic per se. He taught the Lesser Ritual of the Pentagram for his Zelatores, as an example.

Paul Foster Case

Secondly, I don’t agree with the dichotomy of labeling something as “mysticism” and branding something other as “magic”. Theurgy truly transcends these two divisions, as it uses the aim of the former through the methodology of the latter. The only difference that I can perceive is that mysticism (at least in the West) tries to separate spirit from matter (soul from body) while magic involves matter as well as spirit. Thus Hermetic and Qabalistic Magic is more akin to Tantric Mysticism which uses “magic” and “alchemy” together with “yoga”, compared to the chaste ascetics of most yogic and Buddhist traditions. But on the other hand, the majority of the yogic practices use the system of the Chakras and Kundalini (the concept of Siva and Shakti), which again makes this more of an alchemico-magical practice than anything else. Thus the division between magic / alchemy on one hand and mysticism on the other is a typical western perspective and relatively late addition, sadly perpetuated through modern “Rosicrucian” organizations such as the A.M.O.R.C.

But I doubt that neither Harvey Spencer Lewis nor his son Ralph M. Lewis, the first Imperatores of A.M.O.R.C., did this out of ignorance but, as I have suggested, because they had the strong ambition of gaining a huge membership. This foremost goal it certainly has succeeded with and also used the financial means gained from this much impressively indeed. Orders of this magnitude have employees and a administrative staff who works full time to run their organization; they resemble corporations. Just take a look at Rosicrucian Park in San Jose, California. But I ask if a large membership roll should count as a true measure stick of a “successful” Rosicrucian Order or tradition? Is there really a need of a “Golden Dawn Park,” how appealing this though may be?

Rosicrucian Park in San Jose

I have no actual ambition to hang out A.M.O.R.C. in particular but rather want to address the phenomenon itself, that of shunning magical practices. As I have a personal experience of A.M.O.R.C. I must use this organization as an example for any big name “Rosicrucian” organization. To their credit, they are the biggest “Rosicrucian” Order to date, and probably will be for quite some time. And in their defense it must be stated that I never advanced past their Atrium (ante chamber) level, which is the equivalent of the Neophyte Grade of the Golden Dawn (the name of “neophyte” being used for members in the Atrium). Thus I have no experience of their Temple work and higher degrees. But I did work as a voluntary in the Nordic Grand Lodge of A.M.O.R.C. and on a daily basis met its leadership for several months. Thus I believe I’m well acquainted with the mentality as may be encountered there, and also of its inner echelons.

Therefore I must ask if the practices taught in the A.M.O.R.C. actually may be branded as typical “mystic”? The so-called “Liber 777” practice is nothing less than the creation of an “astral temple”, which smells lots as occultism if you ask me. Thus the use of imagination has an important place in the A.M.O.R.C. practice, such as in healing work. I also encountered the instruction of keeping a journal of my daily work and was taught the basic principles of meditation, including using the god-form posture. Much of this may also be found in most Golden Dawn based occult shools.

H.S. Lewis

There are also some vague references to Alchemy in the history of A.M.O.R.C., for example a purported Alchemical transmutation of Zinc into Gold made by H.S. Lewis in New York on June 22, 1916. This feat was performed before an audience composed of members of his Order, one scientist and one journalist, who were told that all of the laws necessary for such an accomplishment were clearly stated and explained in the first four degrees of the Order. A chosen group of 15 brought with them selected and secret, but non-toxic, ingredients which was then mixed together. The “transmutation” purportedly took sixteen minutes to perform and inflicted second and third degree burns to Lewis’ hands. Only half of the zinc brought to the meeting was “transmuted” and the other half was used to compare it to the “transmuted gold”. However, the only reference we have of this event was written by H.S. Lewis himself for the organization’s magazine The American Rosae Crucis, so we must take the veracity of this account with more than one pinch of salt. But it is interesting nevertheless, as it shows that the practice of Alchemy is seen as being an integrated part of the Rosicrucian tradition.

Furthermore, A.M.O.R.C. taught alchemy through the 1930’s and 40’s and again in the late 80’s, but in this it used a scientific approach to Alchemy rather than occult. Frater Albertus (Dr. Albert Richard Riedel) was involved in these Alchemical classes, which wasn’t part of the standard curriculum of the A.M.O.R.C. but rather constituted an extracurricular activity that was soly reserved for a selected few. However, reading Frater Albertus’ own works I cannot find much of the A.M.O.R.C. spirit in his books. Albertus clearly appropriated the Qabalistic model according to the Golden Dawn as well.

Frater Albertus

I admire Frater Albertus much, as well as one other former A.M.O.R.C. luminar, Jean Dubuis. The latter fully embraced the Golden Dawn system and even pioneered the revival of the Golden Dawn in France in the late 1970’s. His Qabalah correspondence course is nothing less than a Golden Dawn course, and blends the occult and magical teachings of the latter with that of the invaluable Alchemical courses. The only trace of influence from A.M.O.R.C. in Dubuis’ lessons that I can find is the use of mirrors in some of the meditations. Other than that I also find some Martinist teachings – the way of the heart – as Dubuis seems to have been mostly involved with the Martinist part of A.M.O.R.C. But the greater majority in his courses on Esotericism and the Qabalah is clearly Golden Dawnish.

Regarding Alchemy being scientific, of course it is; it is a science and art. But not “scientific” according to today’s paradigm of positivist empiricism. It is a ‘scientific spirituality’ of a holistic type, which clearly integrates Theurgy into its practice, at least if you study the classics. This doesn’t show in Frater Albertus’ books, but nevertheless in his classic The Alchemist’s Handbook he cites an entire document from a conference held by members of the Gold- und Rosenkreutz Order. This Order, also known by its Latinized name Fraternitas Rosae et Aureae Crucis, or R. et A.C., is the only historically tangible organization we can speak of being “originally Rosicrucian”. As a matter of fact it was at the A.M.O.R.C. facilities in Sweden that I first encountered its much renowned work Geheime Figuren der Rosenkreuzer, aus dem 16ten und 17ten Jahrhundert (“Secret Symbols of the Rosicrucians”) from 1785. This important work, which is quite influential to the Golden Dawn Tradition, was regarded by the A.M.O.R.C. to be a Rosicrucian manifesto, on par with the first two from 1614 and 1615 – Fama et Confessio Fraternitatis. It is interesting to note that this particular German Order not only was greatly admired by H.S. Lewis but also taught and practiced both Alchemy and Magic. The fact is that Theurgy or Magic was the capstone of their entire system – alchemy thus being but a preparation for Theurgy.

The frontespice of Secret Symbols of the Rosicrucians

Thus there is abundant evidence that the practice of ritual magic isn’t contrary to the spirit of Rosicrucianism. On the contrary, Magic, Alchemy and Astrology, called the “Trivium Hermeticum”, must be seen as a whole. Divorce Alchemy away from the other two you will reduce it to a simple “spagery” or “pseudo-chemistry”. The Alchemical credo is “Ora et Labora”, meaning “pray and work”. In this context the prayer is an invocation of the Higher, ergo Theurgy.

This is why I won’t consider the majority of the “Rosicrucian” organizations as representing Hermeticism at all, at least not in the A.M.O.R.C. monographs that I have studied. What is left of Rosicrucianism if you divorce it from its Hermetic roots? There are of course individuals in these organizations that have a good understanding of hermeticism, but I ask if this knowledge of theirs comes from their Order itself? Why isn’t Alchemy taught regularly and in A.M.O.R.C.’s official monographs? Also, why is the Holy Qabalah only taught as an un-official side course as well? What is left of Rosicrucianism if you divorce it from the Qabalah?

Before I end this exposé on Magic in the Rosicrucian tradition, I would like to explain myself why I consider the R. et A.C., or Golden Rosy+Cross, to be “the only historically tangible organization”. With this I mean the “earliest” and “foremost” organization which can be historically proven without a doubt, which has had the most tangible impact upon the Neo-Rosicrucian movement since the middle and late 19th Century (including the A.M.O.R.C. and the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn).

Rosicrucian Philosopher

Regarding the circle in Tübingen and the Die Unzertrennlichen, which is supposed to predate the Golden Rosy+Cross and purportedly to have produced the original Rosicrucian manifestos from the early 17th Century, all we have of “proof” of an actual organization (in contrast to a one man show, perhaps with some aid of friends) is speculations. There surely are prominent individuals from the 16th and 17th Century being seized by a common spirit, but do we have historical proof of them actually being part of a common fraternity? Not by academic criteria. But in the Golden Rosy+Cross we actually have traces and facts which may be proven historically, or at least being worthy of historical research. That’s why I am referring to them as the “only historically tangible organization”.

Regarding the earliest date of their origin, let me again direct the attention of the reader to the Latinized name for the Golden Rosy+Cross, the Fraternitas Rosae et Aureae Crucis (which was in use by the German 18th Century Golden Rosicrucians). The Samuel Richter (who used the pseudonym ‘Sincerus Renatus’) pamphlet Bereitung des Philosophischen Steins der Brüderschaft aus dem Orden des Gülden-und Rosen-Creutzes (“The True Preparation of the Philosopher’s Stone of the Fraternity of the Golden Rosy Cross”), dated from 1710, isn’t the earliest source of this name. I suggest looking at this little paper written by the renowned Swedish scholar Susanna Åkerman. Thus we see here a possible Italian circle of alchemists referring to themselves as the Golden Rosy+Cross. This evidence taken together with the legendary book Thesaurus Thesaurorum A Fraternitate Rosæ et Aureæ Crucis Testamento Anno 1580 creates a quite solid picture of a Golden Rosy+Cross Order which predates Samuel Richter’s pamphlet by at least a half century.

The frontespice of a secret document of the Philosopus Grade

The book Thesaurus Thesaurorum, which is brimmed with alchemical and theurgical operations (of which one is very similar to the so-called “Abra-Melin operation”), and which may have an Italian origin, dates itself back to 1580. However historians often consider that being a typo for 1680. A.E. Waite, who was something of a sceptic to most extravagand claims, suggests this even being a typo for 1780. However, in this particular case, Waite was clearly prejudical. Christopher MacIntosh, the author of The Rose Cross and the Age of Reason, has the following to say regarding the Thesaurus Thesaurorum:
An important manuscript in this connection is the “Testamentum der Fraternitet Roseae et Aureae Crucis” in the Austrian National Library, Vienna. This is clearly based on Sincerus Renatus, or on the same sources from which he drew, since many of the rules and procedures in it, such as the forms of greeting, are identical to those described by Renatus. At the same time there are significant changes. For example Renatus gives the total number of brethren as 63, while the Testamentum raises it to 77. As to the date, a note on one of the endpapers records that the manuscript was acquired by Johann Adalbert, Prinz de Buchau [sic], in 1735.
First of all, MacIntosh says that Samuel Richter’s “A True Preparation” and the “Thesaurus Thesaurorum” can be based upon a common source as well, predating both manuscripts. In this regard I fully agree with him. Secondly, the date 1735 clearly dismisses 1780 as the actual date. Most scholars that I have read believes it to be from 1680. I personally believe it to predate 1710, and perhaps even 1680. I have a friend who is a Swedish scholar and he clearly believes that Samuel Richter was initiated into the Italian branch of the Golden Rosy+Cross. I have no reason to disbelieve him, nor any of MacIntosh’s or Åkerman’s findings.

Personally I believe there indeed was a network of early initiates which may be called “Rosicrucian”, writing pamphlets and manifestos, etc., such as the Tübingen circle from late 16th and early 17th Century. The Golden Rosy+Cross of late 17th Century Italy (and possible France), and of 18th Century Germany, represents the next phase of the Rosicrucian movement, which ties in to the first wave as represented by the Fama Fraternitatis. We see initiates who has become disillusioned and have their foundations shaken by the Thirty Years War. We see initiates who are disappointed by the Lutheran reformation, which has taken religion back to the letter of the Holy Book, threatens with damnation in hell and shuns mysticism. We also see initiates who watches an “enlightenment”, initially showing promise (remember that alchemists like Isaac Newton pioneered modern science and Descartes openly applied for membership to the Rosicrucian Order) but now instead disrespecting and deriding spirituality, religion, and especially the occult arts, such as astrology, magic and alchemy; simply put becoming “god-less”.

Movements and philosophies change, and adapts to the currents of time, also the Rosicrucian one. We see in the Golden Rosy+Cross a movement who wants to trace their tradition back to the roots of Hermeticism and the Qabalah. We see a movement who emphasizes the practice of operational Alchemy and Theurgy (Magic), in contrast to both organized religion and empirical positivist science, who believes in a tangible transformation of natural humanity into divinity. Not metaphorically but actually, comparable to the Eastern traditions (remember Samuel Richter’s allusion to the original Brethren moving to India). According to Christopher MacIntosh, the Golden Rosy+Cross represents a movement which must be considered being a third force in relation to the Catholic Church and enlightenment. I happen to agree with him.

The Alpha et Omega

I don’t believe the Golden Rosy+Cross to be Catholic at all, as sometimes has been asserted, but rather all inclusive when it comes to the Christian religion (admitting both Catholics and Lutherans, and what ever). If anything, I would label the German Golden Rosy+Cross as Pietist (which is a Lutheran reformation within the reformation). If anything, the Golden Rosy+Cross wanted a further reformation of Christianity, or at least attracted Christians of this bent (such as the pietists). The Fratres Lucis (which grew out of the Golden Rosy+Cross) even went futher to include also the Jewish.

Thus I prefer to look upon the Thirty Years Wars (the actual First World War) as a calcination of European culture, ideology, philosophy, etc. I believe it is hard for us today to understand what impact that war had upon the mentality of the European mind, especially amongst the intellectuals (and thus initiates); one may compare this with how the Second Word War has changed the European mentality. The Rosicrucian pamphlets between 1614-16 represent a stance typical prior to the outbreak of the War (polemicising to the extreme), while the Golden Rosy+Cross of Italy and Germany represents the post War mentality (weary of conflict, trying to see a common unity within the Christian world).

Strangely enough, one doesn’t find any traces at all relating to the Christian religion nor to Christian symbolism in the teachings of the above mentioned big-name “Rosicrucian” organizations, contrary to the Ordo Rosae Rubeae et Aureae Crucis (R.R. et A.C.), Golden Dawn’s Second or Inner Order, which continues the Rosicrucian tradition of the Fraternitas Rosae et Aureae Crucis (R. et A.C.).


söndag 5 december 2010

Medicine and healing in the New Age


This is a follow-up on my previous critical commentary on the New Age phenomenon. Today I would like to address the issue on healing and medicine in the context of the New Age and what in contrast constitutes traditional Rosicrucian healing. It is probably in this field of alternative medicine that the New Age movement has gained the biggest momentum in recent decades, having the most profound effect upon society, and which I personally find the greatest benefit; it has been helpful in giving way to an alternative paradigm in health care and medicine in place of Western school medicine. The New Age cannot of course take full credit for this new wave of alternative medicine flooding the health care market, but surely it has had a big part in shaping the current open-mindedness of the post-modern society individual. In particular oriental medicine – of the Chinese and Hindu traditions – has become a serious alternative to modern allopathic Western medicine. However, also because of this import of oriental traditions the more occidental forms of alternative medicine has found a never seen renaissance, in particular homeopathy.

Because of its magnitude and importance in the New Age tradition, it is very hard to keep track of all the different forms of alternative medicine and healing techniques that currently are applied by its adherents. I will only address some parts of this subject, which has gained my attention and which probably constitutes the most popular and most heard of. Looking into this mix we will find traditional applications, such as Taoist Chinese medicine, which has been presented in a more or less original format, perhaps because of the relatively large contingent of Chinese immigrants living in the West and who has always practiced these remedies but limitedly confined to their own people. Thanks to the New Age it has shown its benefits also to the indigenous population of the West. But there is also several different types of typical New Age applications of “healing” which is not founded upon older tradition and merits, such as the use of crystals in chakra balancing and aromatherapy, and the likes.

Even if both the use of crystals and aromatics of essential plants have seen its application in remedies since antiquity, the particular application as seen in the New Age is quite a new phenomenon. What is typical of the New Age is also to combine different traditions and applications together to create new and unique forms, such as the above mentioned combination of crystals and the Tantric concept of the chakras. This has absolutely nothing to do with Hermetic or Rosicrucian medicine and healing. However, the concept of the “chakras” alone also has a traditional western standing and application with a slightly different spin, focusing on the concept of the microcosmic Planetary spheres instead of the Elementary as in Tantrism. So the use of energetic spheres in the subtle body has strong ties with both the Rosicrucian and the Alchemical traditions of the occident. This is however a quite well guarded secret amongst initiates and only some traces of this can be found in published literature, such as the works of Johann Georg Gichtel, the pupil of Jacob Boehme. However, the use of crystals in this context has never been heard of prior to the advent of the New Age, and thus may be dismissed by the hermetic initiate.

The interior Planets

While we are on the subject of energetic healing I also must address the issue of the peculiar form of healing called “Reiki”, which has become quite popular amongst New Age followers and occultists alike. It was developed by the Japanese Buddhist monk Mikao Usui in the early 1920’s. It is based on traditional Chinese applications, such as Qi-Gong, even if its particular form was developed by Usui himself after certain revelations while being in a meditative state. But it has a strong oriental foundation that has been somewhat adapted when it became westernised after the Second World War. There are several schools of Reiki but all are based upon an initiatic scheme, the most common based on three degrees. The initiations are mainly energetic and cannot really be compared to traditional Rosicrucian initiation, which has been based upon Freemasonry since its reformation in 1777. Although there is a strong energetic component of healing in all true Rosicrucian initiation, it also places much emphasis on the ritual drama and occult instruction.

In my opinion Reiki is a highly effective formula of energetic healing that I recommend for study to all occultists and initiates of the Western Esoteric Tradition. I know of several initiates that has benefited greatly from being initiated into Reiki. Thus I don’t doubt its efficiency. However, in its second degree the initiate is introduced into the concept of distant healing. This in my opinion has been the source of much misuse when put into the hands of New Age adherents. Today you may get Reiki healing through the telephone or after writing an e-mail order. This latter application has nothing in common with traditional occult healing in the Western Esoteric Tradition, which either has the patient in close proximity to the healer or uses some kind of material medium (called “talisman”). Only in extreme cases is distant and astral techniques applied. But in the hands of New Age practitioners, which often hold an extreme pragmatic view on occult application, this has turned into a preferred mode of working as it gets a fast buck. Unfortunately this “laissez-faire” mentality has also infested the occult movement and most probably laid the foundation to more recent concepts such as “astral initiation” and the likes. And as I have said repeatedly on this blog, the concept of distant astral initiation has absolutely nothing to do with traditional Rosicrucian initiation.

There is also the concept of “Pranic Healing”, quite recently developed by Choa Kok Sui but, as it seems, loosely based upon traditional Hindu Yogic tradition. It seems to aim at energetic healing of the aura and also of the chakras. This goal it has in common with Reiki, and both systems share the concept of distant healing. Thus Reiki has incorporated also the Tantric view on the energy centres or wheels, referred to as “chakras”. This eclectic nature of Reiki has probably been one of the reasons of it being adopted so readily by the New Age movement. It is also interesting to note that Pranic Healing is a quite recent invention from the 1980’s and is referred to by its adherents as “non-traditional”. It seems to be a quite commercialised form of Yoga, which even uses crystals in its healing techniques. Thus it shouldn’t surprise me if New Age finally has started to have something of a feedback effect on the oriental traditions. In my opinion, this is a sad development as it may endanger the purity of the traditional teachings.

Be there as it may, but I have yet to encounter anything that resembles Reiki or Pranic Healing in the Western Esoteric Tradition or the Rosicrucian teachings. Thus neither Reiki nor Pranic Healing can be regarded as a traditional Rosicrucian healing formula; it must be regarded to be a complementary application of energetic healing which may have great benefits in the hands of an occidental initiate, but nevertheless should be learned through existent schools outside of the traditional lodge format. Rebranding the oriental word Qi or Ki (“vital life energy”) with western equivalent designations, such as “pneuma” or “ruach”, doesn’t make energetic healing of this kind more Rosicrucian or Qabalistic than it was before, especially when being sold to the public in the same manner as is commonly found in the New Age market. Hermetic or Rosicrucian principles simply cannot be learned in weekend workshops and certification being handed over only through attendance of a course.

Through my own research I have come to the conclusion that Rosicrucian healing, that is Hermetic medicine, most of all resembles Hindu and in particular Tantric tradition. The goal of any Rosicrucian is to become an Adept, meaning someone who has succeeded in the Great Work of making the Philosopher’s Stone. This is the Universal Medicine which is said to cure all ailments of the body and the soul, and furthermore grant immortality. In Tantric Alchemy transmutation of base metals into silver or gold is only a preliminary stage before the Elixir of Life being used to transmute the body of the Alchemist into the so-called “diamond body”. This last process is referred to as sarirayoga or “transubstantiation”. In this Tantric Alchemy, in Sanskrit referred to as Rasa Shastra or Rasayana, shares a common goal with Adepts of the Western Alchemical Tradition. Thus energetic healing using hand-laying techniques, such as in Reiki or Pranic Healing, isn’t the main focus of Hermetic medicine. Instead, source texts inform us that Alchemical and spagyrical preparations forms the main focus of Rosicrucian healing. Elixirs and tinctures may also be used to remedy local ailments, using spagyrical preparations of plants or minerals.

Indian alchemical apparatus

Thus Paracelsian medicine is much more true to the original Rosicrucian notion of healing, which is also Hermetic in its aims, that was even addressed in the 1614 manifesto Fama Fraternitatis. Homeopathy partly stems from Paracelsian medicine and thus has more in common with traditional Rosicrucian healing than does Reiki or Pranic Healing, or any other concepts of healing in the New Age. The Hindu equivalent of Paracelsian spagyrics is the Ayurveda, another ancient tradition popularised in the New Age and in the process transformed into but a form of dietism. In its original form it constitutes an entire field of medicine, originating from the Rasa Shastra in the same manner as spagery comes from Alchemy, sharing a common goal – that of bodily regeneration and prolongation of life. So, if anything appropriated by the New Age, the closest equivalent to Rosicrucian healing is the Ayurveda.

However, neither spagery nor its parent Alchemy is all about physical remedies. On the contrary, Alchemy is another form of energetic healing as it directly affects the energetic and subtle bodies, not only the physical. Thus the Stone of the Wise is a Universal Panacea that heals all levels of man, or it wouldn’t be universal. Likewise, as I said previously, initiation is also energetic healing and involves the transmission of energy from the initiator and the initiate. In the traditional Hermetic view on initiation, the concept of the “yeast” is important, meaning the initiator serving as a catalyst in the energetic and spiritual progression of the initiate. Ceremonial Magic also involves energetic healing, for obvious reasons. And in my opinion Ceremonial Magic has lots in common with Taoist formats of internal alchemy, such as Qi-Gong, as it involves the setting in motion of the vital life energy (in the Rosicrucian tradition referred to as the L.V.X.; “light”) through the subtle bodies. But as with the internal alchemical traditions of the Dao and Tantra, as well as Tibetan Buddhism, it is primarily a formula of self-healing.

These energetic formulae of internal alchemy may be used also to heal others, but only after the Adept sufficiently has developed an adequate vehicle for it to be able to transmit truly healing energies. In the common New Age movement, anyone may become initiated into Reiki or Pranic Healing, just like that. In Sweden I have heard some stories of patients experiencing unwanted and sometimes disastrous “side-effects” of wrongly applied energetic healing. This, I am convinced of, is mainly due to the fact that an unprepared healer (having an unbalanced energetic body) with transmit unbalanced forces into the aura of the patient. I strongly believe that even if the true healing agent is transpersonal the person doing the healing and acting as a conduit is still filtering the L.V.X., altering its “frequency”. Healing is not for the dilettant; it should be solely reserved for the Adept. It takes several years of hard study to become a physician, but only a weekend to become a Reiki healer. Thus the thought of such advanced formulae of healing, which requires a high level of responsibility from the therapist, not to mention the possibility of bearing the karmic burden of the patient, simply being taught at weekend workshops is quite barouche. It has absolutely nothing in common with any traditional esoteric teachings of both the occident and orient, and definitely not with anything remotely Rosicrucian or Hermetic.


onsdag 1 december 2010

Angels in the New Age


This is the first of a series of commentaries on the spiritual phenomenon commonly referred to as the “New Age” or neo-spirituality. I want to point out in the outset that I’m not particularly fond of some notions and tendencies expressed through this movement. Even though it bases some of its tenets upon the Ageless Wisdom of the occident and orient, it predominately presents it in a sadly diluted state. I often wonder if honest spirituality actually is the main issue in certain venues of the New Age or if it’s just another business market in the hands of charlatans who tries to exploit the gullibleness of desperate spiritual consumers. Hopefully it’s not, for the sake of spiritual seekers drawn into it, but nevertheless it’s important not to conflate the New Age with that of the Western Esoteric Tradition. So my ambition with these short comments is to point out the difference between the New Age and the true Ageless Wisdom of the Qabalah and Hermetics.

The first subject I want to bring your attention to is the use of Angels and Angelical communication in a New Age context and how this differs from the use of Angels in traditional esoteric lodges. What sparked this comment is an article I read today in a Swedish newspaper who described a “spiritual-angelical therapist” who held a lecture before an audience composed of social workers. These were told by the “therapist”, with outmost certainty common only to natural science, that angels belong to a vibrational level which greatly transcends that of humans, that spiritual guides resides in a vibrational frequency just below that of angels and that deceased human spirits belongs to the lowest frequency, bordering to ours. But these latter are good nevertheless.

First of all the naïve notion that spiritual forces are always good. No they are not, at least not according to occult philosophy. The Golden Dawn tradition teaches us that the astral realm is “the abode of the elementals, the Qlippoth, and the Shells of the Dead.” The “Qlippoth” is a Qabalistic term for “demons.” The “shells of the Dead” are also often negative energies that feed upon the living; not being the actual souls of the dead but rather energetic residues common in nature with though forms. Most occultists are also aware of the so-called “larvae”, primitive Qlippotic entities who feed upon the negative energies emanated from corresponding emotions and fantasies of humans. This fact is hardly ever addressed by New Age gurus, who always keep on only talking about some naïve notion regarding the “Light”, ignoring that there is also such a thing as a Universal Darkness and that “the Divine Darkness is the same as the Divine Glory.”

Secondly, I want to address the view of the nature and form of the angelical beings held in the minds of the New Age believers, who are often depicted and thought of in the same naïve manner as medieval theologians, i.e. as human forms with wings, although surrounded by a bright aura of intense light. Basically they are regarded to be humanoid light beings. Thus they never critically consider the fact that these are images which humans has projected coming from a collective mind feeded by iconography. In ancient times people likewise saw them as gods or demi-gods, in all kinds of human forms (and sometimes as beasts or man-beasts), sometimes with and sometimes without wings. There is no great difference with the common and naïve notion today regarding angels.

Contrary to this, initiates of all ages has known that these forms were and still are created by the human mind to be used as adequate symbolical representations of real principles behind what we call angels. Initiates often regard their true form to be abstract geometrical forms or pillars of light, not as winged humans, at least when dealing with the arch-angelic realm, although they imagine them as humanoid when performing magical acts. But this doesn’t differ from traditional god-form magic, as represented by the Golden Dawn tradition. In my opinion, magic may be defined as “applied mythology”. This means that the magician uses images as presented by mythology and religion to gain communication with their corresponding forces, never mistaking the concrete forms for the true essence of these forces or exalted principles.

Thirdly, in the New Age community one often use classical mediumistic formulae to gain communication with “angelical beings”, a vestige of 19th Century spiritualism. This means using passive forms of trance states where the conscious awareness of the individual gives way for the consciousness of the entity, which is allowed to possess the individual for a limited duration of time. This technique to bring about such as state of passivity is highly dangerous and is shunned by the esoteric lodges and their initiates for obvious reasons.

Remember what the Golden Dawn says regarding the Astral Plane as quoted above. Anything may enter the aura of the medium and take the guise of an angel or spirit guide. There is no safety filter or “fire wall” imbedded in this technique, which assures to only allow “angelical” forces to enter the aura. No true initiate ever surrenders to any entity in this way. Invocation is something entirely different to mediumistic communication. In invocation, the aura of the magician becomes filled with the force invoked, but consciousness always remains and the magical focus never sways. This is imperative to the success of a magical operation while keeping a sane and healthy mind.

Finally, the New Age seems to have lost track of the fundamental principle of the Microcosm in relation to the Macrocosm, used in Hermetic Magic and Alchemy. To me it seems that the New Age is limited to a Macrocosmic perspective in its outlook on Angels. Contrary to this limited perspective, the initiates see them both as being part of the Macrocosm (World) and the Microcosm (Man). That which is in the world is also reflected in Man, the “lesser universe”. Thus angelical beings, as well as all spiritual beings (including the Qlippoth), form the make up of a human being. Therefore Angels also represents spiritual archetypes of the superconscious, emissaries of the Higher and True Self.

This also concerns the notion of “guardian angels”. As the New Age sees them as mere evolved spiritual guides, sometimes as deceased relatives, external to the individual whom they guide, the initiate sees his Holy Guardian Angel as a symbolic representation of his own Higher Self or divine spark. I have written quite extensively about this in a previous essay, where I develope it more fully. Thus when a magician invokes a force he actually draws down higher and spiritual aspects of himself to his aura or energetic body. But this naturally doesn’t exclude the notion of external spiritual forces and entities being involved in the process as well – remember that in the final analysis the Microcosm is a reflection of the Macrocosm.


onsdag 10 november 2010

What is Apotheosis?


One of my recent essays on this blog has stirred quite some debate lately on one of the Golden Down fora. A voice has been raised against my portrayal of the ideal spiritual state of the Adeptus Exemptus (7°=4°). Basically I consider this Grade representing one who has emancipated himself from the passions of the body after succeeding in subjugating the Animal Soul (the Nephesh) under his conscious will, or the Ruah. This, I assert, is to be accomplished through the Great Work of the Major Adept, or 6°=5°, which undergoes a process in which he evokes and make conscious his own repressed and unconscious Qlippothic complexes. Thus the actual meaning of the emancipation, as expressed by the title of Exempt Adept, is that the Adept has succeeded in transcending his egoic consciousness originally centered in Yesod unto its rightful place in Tiphareth, and “made the former into the throne of the latter.”

The critical voice makes us aware that the first two Adepti Exempti of the Golden Dawn, S.L. MacGregor Mathers and W.W. Westcott, surely never reached that lofty ideal in their life time. Again he tells us that being a 7°=4° is only about mastering one’s understanding of the system, ritually and theoretically. According to this voice, the basic personality is never transformed by doing ritual or study. The ultimate goal of Apotheosis is only reached through an understanding of our relation to the world in which we are living in the here and now through symbol and analogy, and has nothing to do with what I have described. But I ask: what’s about mastering the understanding of one’s own self? Shouldn’t there also be an internal spiritual development following being raised to a particular Grade?

First of all I want to address the supposition that neither MacGregor Mathers nor Westcott reached what I have described is the essence of the 7°=4°. This may very well be the case. But we have to remember that even if the original Theurgical system as presented by these gentlemen surely has a strong potential I hold that it hasn’t been used to its optimal capacity previously. Thus it is possible that the 1888 reformation (at least in the majority of cases) cannot bring an Adept to this end as I have described. But since the 1999 reformation the Order curriculum has been adapted to bring about this transformation in gradual steps. One big change between the years 1888 and 1999 is that the former taught Ceremonial Magic (proper) only after reaching the Adeptus Minor Grade of 5°=6°, while the latter teaches that in full force already in the Juniorus 1°=10° Grade and partly so even in the Neophyte 0°=0° Grade. Thus the energetic evolution of the initiate and his energetic body, or Sphere of Sensation, begins at the very early stages of the Work, in gradual and systematical steps, which in the sub-grades of the 5°=6° goes into even more detail in the anatomy of the subtle energetic body.

One other detail which has great relevance to us is that while evocation of the averse forces was already taught after the 1888 reformation (or more properly after the R.R. et A.C. was reformed in 1892), this was done in a haphazard and unsystematic way as with most of the Magical requirements of the Golden Dawn system of Theurgy. Following the 1999 reformation the formula of evocation is systematized and methologically applied at the level of 6°=5°, where all the forces (of an angelical character) which previously has been invoked from 1°=10° to 5°=6° now are subjugated to evocation of their Qlippotic aspects. This is aimed at bringing about not only a closer union and knowledge between the micro- and macrocosmic forces of the matter (prima materia), but also to make conscious the unconscious complexes of the subconscious. This knowledge and resolving of conflicts of the subconscious will ultimately lead to liberty of the kind that I have described. It will perhaps not make you a “perfect” Adeptus Exemptus (if there even is such as a perfect thing below the Abyss), but at least make you a “good enough” one.

Thus the concerns that has been raised in the criticisms against my article only applies to the old Order according to the 1888 foundation and superstructure. What I am describing is the Order and tradition following the reformation anno 1999, and the new foundation (outer order process) and superstructure (inner order process). Ultimately what we see in the reformed Order is an entire new house, using the stones and bricks from the old and demolated building that used to be the Golden Dawn. Thus rituals in themselves has no fundamental transformative effect upon the initiate, at least not to reach the ultimate goal of Apotheosis, but rather it is how we actually apply them and to what end we use them in our gradual steps to perfection. Perform rituals in a haphazard way and without a clear long term orientation, and you will get haphazard results which can lead you astray from the ultimate goal. Alchemical processes requires pre-ordained steps and formulae taken in an exact order of sequence and according to certain cycles which has to be adhered to. The same goes for initiation and personal Ceremonial Magic. Theoretical studies have only a purpose to facilitate the practical application of certain formulae, they surely won’t change your personality other than the outlook on life on a intellectual or conscious level. Ceremonial Magic and Alchemy changes your entire being (including the unconscious) if done properly.

Suggestions has also been raised that I perhaps have a Jungian perspective in my analysis, as I work with counseling, which I believe is a quite correct assumption. The outcome of a liberated (or Exempt) Adept, following the evocation of the unconscious complexes of the subconscious (the microcosmic Qlippoth as it were), is that he ideally no longer “projects” these complexes upon his fellow men – as they now have become conscious. Projection is a (very common) psychological phenomenon which all ordinary humans are afflicted with, in a more or less manner, which means that we do not see the outside reality (and in particular our neighbor) in their true essence or nature. Instead we unconsciously re-create our fellow men according to our own psychological needs. This often means projecting our unresolved and unconscious conflicts (our own “evil” sides so to speak) upon the person who stands before us; this is a process referred to as “projective identification” after a so-called “splitting” away of the parts of ourselves that we do not yet acknowledge. This of course also gives rise to idealization and “divinization” of those who we perceive as important for our progress, or needs, etc. Still it comes down to our own psychological urges and needs, and has nothing at all to do with the person who stands before us themselves. The important task here is to finally acknowledge these suppressed and buried sides of ourselves, a task that is facilitated by the traditional techniques of the evocation of averse forces.

Thus an Exempt Adept (7°=4°) still has passions and feelings, and even needs. But he doesn’t (ideally) project them upon his neighbor. As he has (ideally) resolved his unconscious conflicts and come to terms with his own “evil,” and properly embraced it (integrated it), he no longer instinctively projects that evil part upon the person who stands before him. Instead he sees it as part of himself. A 7°=4° can still experience both rage and love, but ideally these are the result of adequate response to outside stimuli. Sometimes a person’s behavior motivates a severe response from us. Not everything is projection; some emotions (also negative) are fully adequate. But in the Exempt Adept they should (or are expected to) only be adequate responses to external or internal provocation or stimuli. To take but a few examples of adequate responses to internal stimuli we have the feeling of bliss in the conversation with one’s Divine Genius, or feelings of severity (towards one’s self) in the encounter of petty and jealous impulses surging from the subconscious. Thus an Exempt Adept may still experience pettiness surging from time to time, but what defines his spiritual standing is that he doesn’t succumb to them but gently (compassionately) or severely – whatever is required – directs (sublimates) these energies to a higher end.

So in the final analysis, what is the nature of Apotheosis? It comes from the Greek word ποθεόων, apotheoun, which means “to deify” or “make divine.” Thus it is a reference to the exaltation of the individual subject to a divine status. Now if Apotheosis is the goal, as must of us (even my detractors) agrees about (and which is confirmed by original R.R. et A.C. material), what is the nature of “divinization”? And if doing ritual won’t bring about it, as has been suggested, is doing ritual just a mere practical intellectual excercize or what? I say: Not!

I have already stated that Ceremonial Magic or Theurgy must be properly applied and in an orderly (even minute) fashion to have the desired result which we have agreed upon. Furthermore, the Alchemical Masters of the “Third Order” has taught us that initiation and doing personal magic and alchemy is about energetic evolution of the Soul, meaning the development of the subtle and alchemical body. Thus Apotheosis is, at least in the context of the post 1999 reformation, the ultimate result of acquiring a Solar Body of Light, i.e. a Solar Consciousness. This results in the merging of the human self with the Divine Self.

Thus the practice of Theurgy and Alchemy is very much about a change of the basic (Saturnian) personality or soul into a divine (Solar) soul; the first and base state is what is referred to as “Child of Earth” in Golden Dawn parlance. But this is nothing new, actually. Paul Foster Case basically taught this in his B.O.T.A. lessons. Case says that magic and meditation creates changes in the body (lymph and glands), which also transforms the function of the brain and nervous system. This certainly creates a long term change of consciousness and is the physical evidence of the raising of consciousness, according to Case. I fully agree with him.

However, someone did point out, and correctly so, that according to the Lurianic and Sabbatian Qabalah, the Great Work is not about personal (i.e. one’s own) spiritual development per se but instead about the restoration of Divinity or God (which is in a fallen state). This may seem contradictory to what I (and the Alchemical Masters) have said regarding the evolution of Soul. But we have to remember that God or Divinity resides inside all of us. Thus there is a divine spark which resides in our own body. The important and primary task for us all is to raise this spark of the divine and thus free God or Divinity which is in ourself, which exactly describes the alchemical process as laid out by the Masters. Personal development is not about aggrandizement of the ego. It is about making our base prime matter into a divine substance, which means separating the fine from the gross, i.e. raising the divine spark from the Qlippotic shell. This will ultimately result in the “creation” (or rather rectification) of the Solar Body of Light.

But this ultimate goal of the Great Work is properly attributed to the highest Grade of Ipsissimus or 10°=1°. The state of the 7°=4°, which is under consideration, is just a preliminary stage to reach to that ultimate goal. How can one ever acquire a Solar Body if one’s Saturnian body (or Animal Self; Nephesh) is still subjugating our Self or Magical Will? How can one even reach a Lunar (astral) consciousness if one is bound to matter and the impulses and chatter of the physical (and etheric) brain? It’s nothing wrong with impulses (they are the key to physical survival), but it is a difference between being governed by them and being counseled by their suggestions.

This work is already started with the enterence into the Outer Order (post 1999 reformatio) and especially so with the Elemental Workings. This directly affects an energetic evolution of the Saturnian Body (physical and etheric), which is continued in an even greater scrutiny in the Inner Order. Thus as I see it, the work of Saturn is the primary focus of the First and Second Orders. The preliminary goal is supposed to be reached in the 7°=4° when consciousness is shifted from Yesod to Tiphareth, which prepares us for the Lunar workings in the Magister (8°=3°) Grade. Thus to be able to cross through the Abyss means to have been liberated from the impulses of the Saturnian Soul (the Nephesh), which elevates the initiate into a Lunar consciousness. The next step in the process of Apotheosis is thus reached.

Furthermore, and in harmony with the above statements, attaining the Grade of 7°=4° doesn’t necessarily mean that one has become a full master of the Saturnian and Animal self. As an Adeptus Exemptus one has the time and means to gain this mastership. Often one will become conscious of one’s own shortcomings, in social interactions, and thus do further workings with evocation and integration if the need arises. But to be truly able to cross the Abyss, one has to rightfully earn the title of Exempt Adept. Thus to reach a Grade is but only the beginning of a process which ultimately leads to the mastery of that Grade. Compare this with being a Neophyte Adeptus Minor and becoming an Adept Adeptus Minor. The same applies also the the Adeptus Major and Exemptus Grades, and even the Grades beyond that.

Finally, the subject of the Qabalistic souls has also been raised in this discussion regarding where they are to be attributed, either on the one Tree (10 Sephiroth) or on the four Worlds (per Tree = 40 Sephiroth) model. My personal view is to assign the Qabalistic souls only to Assiah, thus making them into sub-divisions of Assiah. Non of the Grades upon the Tree of Life ever quit Malkuth or Assiah. Reading one of my earlier blog posts fully corroborates this view, so it shouldn’t be a surprise for my readers. This however doesn’t mean that initiation only occurs in matter. It also involves energetic and astral levels, if not even higher that that, simultaniously. Assiah is not only physical and tangible matter. On the contrary it also includes the etheric, astral, mental and causal (spiritual) planes, corresponding to the subtle bodies and souls of the Qabalah. But all spiritual states as represented by the Sephiroth, as I have described, are attainable while being incarnated in the flesh. Thus there are even more subtle planes beyond the Mental and Causal which transcends human incarnated experience, properly attributed as “angelical.”


lördag 16 oktober 2010

Hjärnan såsom självets instrument


Några tankar som har väckts efter mitt förra inlägg om psyket kontra kroppen som bör klargöra min ståndpunkt i frågan om hjärnans funktion utifrån ett ockult och hermetiskt perspektiv. Inom den ockulta synen på människan lägger man faktiskt en större del av sitt fokus på den fysiska kroppen än man kanske kan tro efter att ha läst mina inledande tankar, som på ytan kan verka vara fientligt inställd till materian. I mitt blogginlägg gjorde jag kanske en något för grov förenkling vilket kan tolka in en dualistisk syn mellan kropp och själ, vilket sannerligen är missvisande om min egentliga ståndpunkt. Jag tror i själva verket att kropp och själ är förenade, att de är olika begrepp eller föreställningar som människan har skapat för att hon skall kunna få en förståelse för sig själv. Likadant förhåller det sig med begrepp såsom ”materia” och ”ande”. I själva verket anser den hermetiska läran att där varken existerar någon ”materia” eller ”ande” utan blott substans, och att den fysiska verkligheten och den andliga är två ytterligheter i ett kontinuum som den kallar Alltet eller Det Enda.

Det är dock lätt i diskussioner utanför de ockulta kretsarna, när man påstår och hävdar att själ och kropp är intimt förbundna, att man vill reducera medvetandet till blotta hjärnfunktioner. Det är här jag inte håller med längre eftersom jag anser att medvetandet skrider bortanför den rena biologin. Jag ser på den biologiska hjärnan mera som en radiomottagare, en metafor som jag har lånat av Paul Foster Case som var en av det förra seklets största Hermetiska och Qabalistiska tänkare. En dåligt kalibrerad eller inställd radiomottagare kommer ta in väldigt svaga och dåliga radiosignaler (elektromagnetiska vågor) och ofta med stora luckor i sin mottagning. Likadant förhåller det sig med en skadad eller störd hjärnfunktion.

Jag hävdar att tankar och känslor inte har sin upprinnelse i hjärnan över huvudtaget utan att hjärnan blott mottager och registrar dessa, precis som den gör med all information; hjärnan är ett i grunden passivt redskap och instrument som observerar och tolkar – den skapar inget i och av sig självt. Den kan verka vara aktiv men jag kan också få min förstärkare och hi-fi-anläggning att låta ganska mycket, verka dynamisk och ”komma till liv” när jag sätter på en skiva med hårdrock. Det är dock varken förstärkaren eller högtalarna som skapar musiken.

Man kan tala om ”Hi-Fi” (high fidelity = naturlig återgivning) även hos en hjärna; en väl utvecklad och frisk hjärna skapar ett större ”hi-fi” i förhållande till den objektiva verkligheten än en gammal eller dysfunktionell hjärna (som istället förvränger verkligheten). Precis som en förstäkare behöver stor strömkraft (amperstyrka) för att låta verklighetstroget så behöver tankarna och känslorna på ett motsvarande sätt ”hjärnkraft” för att komma till uttryck till fullo och utan för stor förvrängning utifrån sin inneboende verklighet och ursprungliga essens.

Man kan också jämföra med en resonanslåda, såsom en klassisk gitarr, violin eller en cello. Tankar och känslor kan liknas vid ljudvågorna i omgivningen som registreras och får strängarna att vibrera, och vidare får ljudet att resonera i lådan. Man kan ta metaforen längre och säga att ”självet” är gitarristen, violinisten eller cellisten som genom sin vilja formar toner och ackord och slår an strängarna. En dåligt stämd gitarr, violin eller cello skapar disharmonisk musik. Likaså en ”dåligt stämd” hjärna som skapar disharmoniska tankar och känslor. Hjärnan är dock gitarren, violinen eller cellon och inte musikern själv. Musikern är inte beroende av sitt instrument för att skapa musik; det kan han likväl göra i sin föreställningsförmåga. Men musikern har svårt att förmedla sin musik till andra utan att ta till sitt instrument. På samma sätt fungerar hjärnan som självets instrument att förmedla sig till sin omgivning.

Dessa metaforer är dock förenklingar och kan återigen verka stå för en dualistisk människosyn. Ibland behöver man metaforer och liknelser för att beskriva något som är obeskrivbart. Vad jag vill säga med dessa är att den kausala principen är bortom det rent materiella och att den mänskliga mikrokosmen står i samklang med den makrokosmiska harmonin, vilket är det egentliga ursprunget till individens tankar och känslor. Det står dock som ganska så självklart, om man spinner vidare på dessa metaforer, att vårt vardagsmedvetande och kanske t.o.m. vårt självmedvetenhet är på nivå med den fysikaliska kroppen; hjärnan och det centrala nervsystemet. När vi är trötta eller har låg energinivå i vår kropp, kanske för att vi har slarvat med mat och dryck och sömn, så upplever vi att vi inte hänger med i tankarna – att vi ”kopplar långsamt”.

Detta självobserverande experiment visar uppenbarligen att få av oss människor kan lyfta oss ur den cerebrala nivån av vår tillvaro. I Qabalistiska termer motsvarar detta ”Malkuth” (eller snarare Malkuth i Assiah). Jag är dock övertygad om att vi i meditativt tillstånd och under sömn kan lyfta vårt medvetna fokus från eller ur kroppen och faktiskt då existerar på den så kallade ”astrala” nivån, i höjd med ”Yesod” (i Assiah) och kanske även ännu högre. Den Teurgiska och Alkemistiska praktiken ämnar att stärka vårt förhållande till de subtila kropparna – eterkroppen (saturnianska kroppen), astralkroppen (lunariska kroppen), mentalkroppen (merkuriala kroppen) och den andliga kroppen (solara kroppen) – och i sin tur även stärka dessa kroppar till sin fulla potential. I vissa traditioner går detta under beteckninen att ”skapa sig en ljuskropp”.

I vardagsmänniskan är dessa nivåer hos henne endast blott latenta; hennes medvetande är fängslad i hjärnan och nervsystemet. Endast i extrema tillstånd, såsom vid nära döden upplevelser, kan människan erfara dessa existenser i ett medvetet tillstånd och överskrida vardagsmedvetandets slöjor; endast i sina drömmar kan hon vanligtvis erfara och dunkelt erinra sig detta. Alkemisten och Magikern utvecklar dock en förmåga att medvetet ”färdas mellan världarna”, likt Oden i den nordiska mytologin och Hermes i den grekiska, och andra liknande gudar i andra mytologier. Just denna förmåga har varit kännetecknande för Magiker i alla generationer och tidsåldrar, från Shamanen till Den Hermetiske Alkemisten. Det är därför inte förvånande att just gudar såsom Oden och Hermes ses som arketypiska Magiker. Det är först när människan har blivit såsom dem som hon inser att hjärnan blott är ett av flera redskap eller instrument och att Självet är den sanne konstnären.


torsdag 30 september 2010

Psyke över kropp


En grundsats inom den ockulta läran är den om ”ande (eller själ) över materia”. Med detta så menas, för att använda psykologiska termer, att medvetandet och självet inte främst är betingat av biologin och biogenetiken, vilket ofta framhålls i dagens debatt, utan att det snarare är kroppen som betingas av psyket; kroppens sjukdomar är främst själens sjukdomar (psykosomatik). Själens ”natur” å andra sidan är till övervägande del betingad av inre psykiska och yttre miljömässiga faktorer. Med inre och psykiska faktorer så menas tankar och fantasier, livserfarenheter och referensramar, som rör sig på både medvetna och omedvetna plan. En aspekt av den omedvetna psykiska sfären rör de rent transpersonella eller arketypiska invåerna (det kollektiva omedvetna), eller idéplanet för att låna en term från Platon – Det Högre Självet. Med miljömässiga faktorer så avses främst psykosociala faktorer och relationerna mellan barnet och föräldragestalterna, men även samhällsstrukturer, demografiska faktorer och livsmiljön på ett direkt och konkret sätt, såsom maten man äter, luften man andas, och inte minst visuella intryck eller estetik, etc. Det är dock ofta svårt att göra skillnad mellan yttre och inre faktorer, då det ena kan vara ett uttryck för det andra och vice versa – Så som ovan så ock nedan, och såsom nedan så ock ovan.

I ljuset av alla dessa yttre och inre faktorer så framstår det för mig såsom självklart att den rena biogenetiken endast kan ha en marginell roll i en människas karaktärsutveckling. Jag erkänner att det kan vara ett faktum att där måhända finns en komponent av genetiska faktorer som lägger grunden för en ”predisposition” eller ”känslighet”. Men å andra sidan kan man inte riktigt veta vad som gör en människa mer känslig än andra; även miljömässiga och sociala faktorer har naturligtvis sin stora hand med i det hela. Slutsatsen är att människan är aldeles för komplicerad varelse för att kunna reduceras till neuropsykiatri och biologi. Tvärtom så framstår det som tydligt att människan äger förmågan i sin hand att transcendera sina biologiska förutsättningar eller begränsningar, något som alkemin lär oss. Jag brukar citera ett mycket bra uttalande om människan som jag fick lära mig på Universitetet, men tyvärr för länge sedan har glömt vem som var upphovsman till, och som lyder: ”Människan är som ett grått lakan. De vita trådarna i tyget utgör hennes miljö och de svarta hennes genetik. Men när vi betraktar henne kan vi inte särskilja vad som är vad; vi ser blott ett grått lakan”.

Två saker eller händelser har gjort det angeläget för mig att skriva av mig dessa ord, båda två företeelser som är ganska ”hypade” idag; det är dels frågan om Kognitiv Beteendeterapi (KBT) och frågan om ”Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (uppmärksamhetsstörning med överaktivitet) eller ADHD. Jag läste av en ren slump nyss en artikel i Damenars Värld (jag var förvånad att överhuvudtaget finna en sådan ”intressant” artikel i en modetidning som denna) där en professorn i psykiatri vid namn Åsa Nilsonne påstår att KBT är såpass effektiv eftersom den utgår ifrån hjärnans biologiska funktioner vilket dikterar att hjärnan vänjer sig vid att tänka på ett visst sätt, och ju mer negativa tankar individen tänker och ju mer negativa känslor som uttrycks en ond cirkel därmed skapas, eftersom hjärnan då genom sitt plastiska sätt formar sig efter detta. Enligt denna professor i psykiatri så kan Psykodynamisk Terapi (PDT) eller Psykoanalys ha en kontraproduktiv effekt på hjärnan då den försöker förmå patienten att uppehålla sig mycket kring just negativa och smärtsamma känslor. Bättre är, menar professorn, att inte älta det negativa utan istället tänka på det positiva, så lär hjärnan sig därefter.

Ganska enkelt eller hur? Och till viss del ligger det något i detta. Att hjärnan är plastisk till sin natur är inget nytt eller förvånande; tvärtom bekräftar detta tesen om biologins formbarhet och anpassning efter miljön och medvetandet. Även den ockulta läran säger att våra tankar formar oss och vår värld. Faktum är också att KBT i sin ”tredje generation” av utveckling har anammat vissa österländska meditativa tekniker, vilket de kallar ”mindfullness”. Det är därför inte förvånande att Åsa Nilsonnes senaste bok heter just Mindfullness i hjärnan. Men själva huvudtesen i biologisternas människosyn är att alla människans tankar (kognitioner) blott kan reduceras till neuroners samverkan, då däremot den ockulta människosynen hävdar att människans tanke- och känsloliv är oberoende av kroppen. Och för att uppväga den ytliga och kommersialiserade New Age varianten av ”tänka positivt-filosofin” (idag främst uttryckt genom ”lagen om attraktion”) lär oss den ockulta filosofin, i synnerhet den Qabalistiska, dessutom att vi människor består både av ljus och av mörker. Likaväl som vi inom oss har en kör av änglar har vi inom oss även en legion av demoner. Sigmund Freuds idéer, vilket i min mening står den Lurianska Qabalah mycket nära, beaktar detta faktum om människans tvådelade natur. Han framlade att vi människor har ett annat medvetande på ”andra sidan” av det medvetna, det som han kom att kalla för ”det omedvetna”. Inom Qabalah kallas detta Sitra Ahra, ”den andra sidan”, en omvänd och splittrad version av Livets Träd vars beska frukter kallas ”Qlippoth” eller ”skal” (demoner), istället för de ”Sefiroth” som innehåller det angeliska ljuset.

Att ignorera den mörka sidan i vår natur, vårt omedvetna disassociativa själv i motsats till vårt medvetna integrerade själv, att försaka den och istället blint rikta sina blickar mot ljuset, kan i min mening vara förödande. Den ensamt viktigaste aspekten av all andlig och personlig utveckling är att följa den gamla grekiska devisen gnothi seauton, eller ”känn dig själv”. Att kunna känna sig själv innefattar även kunskapen om ”den andra sidan”, om sina omedvetna djup som ligger bortanför den kognitiva sfären som endast KBT befattar sig med. I min mening arbetar KBT endast på en medveten och ”förmedveten” nivå. Det förmedvetna är ett begrepp som också det myntades av Psykoanalysens fader Sigmund Freud och betecknar allt det i vårt psyke som vi inte hela tiden har tillgång till men som vi kan plocka fram ur minnet, dvs. det som ligger före det omedvetna. Alltså utgörs det förmedvetna av ”den hitre sidan”, på samma sätt som det medvetna.

På samma sätt som alla andra materialistiska biologister försöker KBT-anhängarna att reducera människan till sina medvetna tankar, som man anser betingar känslolivet. Men man tar ingen som helst hänsyn till att människan även har tankar och känslor, och framför allt fantasier, som är omedvetna och alltså tillhör ”den andra sidan”. Liksom biologisterna är KBT-anhängarna utrustade med en tämligen omfattande uppsättning av skygglappar som antingen vägrar att se eller inte kan se alla aspekter av den mänskliga tillvaron, både den psykiska och existentiella. En sådan käpphäst som biologisterna idag tar till alltför jämnan är frågan om ADHD, ett begrepp som de lärda har tvistat om sedan det först myntades på 1990-talet. En hel generation av missanpassade barn har används av den materialistiska läkarkåren som ett mycket effektivt vapen mot den etablerade beteendevetenskapen till såpass grad att ingen idag kan (eller vågar) ifrågasätta tesen av biogenetikens absoluta herravälde över det mänskliga beteendet; läkemedelsföretagens aktieägare skrattar på vägen till banken.

För mig personligen fungerar begreppet ”ADHD” såsom ett rött skynke, eftersom jag i min yrkesutövning med hemlösa och missbrukare jämnt och ständigt får höra att mina klienter lider av detta ”funktionshinder” (jag överdriver inte om jag säger att det har gått inflation i begreppet ADHD) och att det enda sättet att bota en amfetaminist i många fall består i att ge honom diverse centralstimulatia (eller med andra ord amfetaminpreparat), vilket läkemedelsföretagen fullt lagligt langar i formen av Ritalin och Concerta. En ganska så dyr medicin måste jag tillägga som har grävt stora hål i västra götalandsregionens pengakista. Jeppe är inte länge en missbrukare på grund av att hans mamma och pappa själva var missbrukare och misshandlade honom, eller ännu värre förgrep sig på honom som barn, utan för att han har ett neuropsykiatriskt funktionshinder, som är ärftligt och dessutom förklarar varför hans pappa och mamma var så dysfunktionella föräldrar från första början, etc. Ingen bryr sig längre om att undersöka det faktum att Jeppes mamma och pappa lever i en samhällsstruktur som aktivt har marginaliserat dem och håller dem kvar i ett utanförskap. Jeppe är alltså inte ett symptom på något sjukt i hans familjesystem, och ytterst i ett samhällssystem och dess strukturer vari han ”lever, verkar och har sin tillvaro”, utan ”hans symptom” beror istället på en defekt inne i hans hjärnas struktur.

Idag hörde jag på nyheterna att forskare ”äntligen” hade upptäckt att ADHD är genetiskt betingat. Det handlar om att vissa gener replikeras och andra är helt förstörda eller saknas hos individer med ADHD. Naturligtvis blev jag per automatik skeptisk till detta modiga och entusiastiska uttalande. Efter flera decennier av finnandet av den ”schizofrena genen” och den lika snara dementin till upptäckten har jag med åren blivit garvad när jag läser rubriker och påståenden som dessa. Journalister har inte direkt ryktet om sig att vara vetenskapligt korrekta i sina analyser. Vad handlar då allt detta egentligen om? Jo, så här förhåller det sig egentligen mina vänner: Forskarna har undersök 366 barn med ADHD och jämfört dem med en kontrollgrupp (alltså personer som inte har diagnosen ADHD) bestådende av 1 047 individer. Man har sett att dessa förändringar i DNA som jag nämnde ovan förekom totalt sett hos 14 % av barnen med ADHD men bara hos 7 % av kontrollpersonerna; den procentuella andelen barn med ADHD och denna genetiska defekt var alltså ”dubbelt så stor”. Bland barn med ADHD och intellektuell funktionsnedsättning förekom replikering av DNA hos 36 %, jämfört med 11 % av barnen med ADHD utan sådan funktionsnedsättning. Dessutom kunde forskarna se att dessa DNA-förändringarna var koncentrerade till vissa regioner av arvsmassan som tidigare kopplats samman med både autism och schizofreni.

Alltså försöker man samtidigt damma av den gamla ”schizofrenigenen” igen, eller den lika vanligt förekommande teorin att autism (autoerotism) inte beror på störda kommunikationsmönster mellan föräldrar och barn utan av en ”defekt” i hjärnan (faktum är att det inte alls är ovanligt att individer som har diagnosticerats med ADHD även får sidodiagnosen ”autismspektrat” eller Aspergers syndrom). Av dessa siffror drar man alltså slutsatsen att ADHD inte blott kan vara en social konstruktion utan att den dessutom eller snarare har en tydlig biogenetisk komponent. Men vad säger siffrorna egentligen? Jag är övertygad om att vi här har att göra med ett ganska tydligt exempel på att man kan läsa in i siffror lite som man själv vill efter sina egna preferenser. Låt mig då istället (för att väga upp debatten något) bjuda på ett diametralt motsatt tolkning av dessa siffror, efter mina egna prefereser och brukandes av simpel matematik.

Vad var det man sa nu igen? Hade 14 % av ”ADHD-barnen” en genetisk defekt? Innebär det alltså att 86 % av barnen som diagnosticerats med ADHD inte hade en genetisk defekt, alltså en överväldigande majoritet av dem? Sade man inte också att 7% av barnen utan ADHD hade dessa genetiska defekter utan att vara hyperaktiva och utan att ha koncentrationssvårigheter? Alltså kan man inte bevisa att dessa genetiska defekter per automatik ger upphov till ADHD och att den överväldigande majoriteten av ADHD-diagnosticerade individer måste finna orsakerna till sina symptom någon annanstans än i sina gener.

Visst kan man se en viss överrepresentation av genetiska defekter hos barn med ADHD men jag kan inte hjälpa att tolka dessa siffor på annat sätt än att se ett förkrossande nederlag för biologisternas tes om att ADHD är genetiskt betingad. Sedan kan man undra varför kontrollgruppen var tre gånger så större än ADHD-gruppen. Slutsatsen är att man fortfarande inte kan veta vad som är den egentliga orsaken till beteenden såsom den som har givits epitetet ”ADHD”. Liksom människan i sig är oerhört komplicerad så är även individer med ADHD minst lika komplicerade som alla andra; de är ju när allt kommer omkring människor som delar på glädjeämnen och sorger med alla oss andra. Jag kan alltså lugnt luta mig tillbaka i fotöljen och hålla kvar vid min förtröstan att vi männikor inte kan reduceras till blott köttliga varelser utan att vårt psyke (dvs. vår vilja och föreställning) ännu idag är den verkligt determinerande faktorn av tillvaron.


söndag 26 september 2010

The Bodhisattvas of the West


In a recent discussion someone stated that Aleister Crowley considered someone passing the Abyss upon the Tree of Life as becoming a “demi-god”, and in particular the Magus or 9°=2° becoming a “demi-urgos”, or the one who creates his own universe, while the Exempt Adept or 7°=4° was considered being the equivalent of a Bodhisattva. However interesting these ideas may be I don’t fully agree with Mr. Crowley’s assignment of the Supernal Grades and neither that of the Exempt Adept.

Although I agree that the 7°=4° is a quite exalted Grade, being that of an Exempt or “emancipated” Adept at the level of Chesed, one dosn’t become a demi-god just by crossing the Abyss alone or find onself being able to create one’s own universe as an Magus (at least not literally). It is a common mistake made amongst the Adepts of the early 20th Century to attribute superhuman status to the Grade of Exempt Adept. In particular Dion Fortune, in her book The Mystical Qabalah, expresses the opinion that the 7°=4° Grade is unattainable for incarnated initiates; only to be reserved for the Masters who has freed themselves from the wheel of incarnation. This relates somewhat to Crowley’s assignment of the Bodhisattva to the Grade of Exempt Adept.

The Grades upon the Tree of Life

But a Bodhisattva is someone who has attained illumination but chooses to reject Nirvana, to be able to serve his fellow men out of compassion. He is often considered to be someone who has reached the last line in the chain of incarnations and is about to become a Buddha – one who has reached Nirvana proper. This state of Bodhisattva-dom is often compared to the ministry of the Christ. Thus a Bodhisattva, if I have understood the Buddhist teachings correctly, is similar to an “avatar” or individual who have freed himself from the wheel of reincarnation but chosen to reincarnate as a teacher of mankind. Dalai Lama, as an example, is considered to be the incarnation of Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of compassion.

Thus Bodhisattvas I would more correctly place at the level of 10°=1° in Kether, or Ipsissimus – the one who is most himself. This is someone who has completed the alchemical Great Work and reached conscious immortality in a Solar Body of Light. According to Hermetic tradition, there are supposed to be non more than 12 of these true Masters, as there are supposed to be 12 Boddisattvas according to Buddhist tradition. The other two Magisteria, or 9°=2° (Magus) in Chokmah and 8°=3° (Magister Templi) in Binah, are “simply” final preparatory stages to achieve this Solar Consciousness, trough the separation and refinement of the Lunar and Mercurial bodies respectively.

A Bodhisattva

The 7°=4° is one who has emancipated himself from the passions of the body. He has succeeded in subjugating the Animal Soul – the Nephesh – under his conscious will, or the Ruah. This he has done through the process of the Major Adept, or 6°=5°, when one evokes and make conscious one’s own repressed and unconscious “demonic” complexes, analogous to the descent of Jesus into Hell and his sojourn there during three days. Thus being “emancipated” as an Exempt Adept of 7°=4° doesn’t mean that one has freed or is about to free oneself from the Wheel of Reincarnation, but that one has finally transcended (or sublimated) the ego consciousness of Yesod unto that of Tiphareth, and made the former into the throne of the latter.

A 8°=3° is a Master of the Temple (Body) at the existential level of Binah and Neshamah, which means that he has taken control over his bodily actions and reflexes, thoughts and emotions, enough to be able to separate his astral double or Lunar Body. A 9°=2° is a Magus or Magician at the level of Chokmah and Chiah, associated to the Mercurial principle, which now is mastered according to its corresponding body.

To people below the Abyss these two Magisteria may seem to be superhuman in power. But they are still “mortals” in the sense that they are still bound to reincarnation if prematurely deceased. A Magus, being in full control over his mental processes and able to exert a total focus of Will is thus able to create magical manifestation uncommon to ordinary men, even if he isn’t able to create an entire Universe for himself to rule as God. As a Magus one is now able to “walk on water,” turn “water into wine,” and even “resurrect the dead” and “heal the mortally sick” as described in the gospels (Chiah, the Hebrew soul corresponding to Chokmah, translates into “life”). Jesus, in his pre-transfiguration phase, may properly be described as a Magus.

The Transfigurated Christ

But it is still only through the Solar consciousness that one becomes “more than human” and finally reach something which may be compared to “demi-god” status. Here one is able to chose between life as an ascended master, and even union with the ALL and thus properly reaching the level of Ain-Soph (i.e. beyond the Tree of Life), or of being a “Bodishattva” at the level of Kether and Yechidah. Thus one is able to have full control over the life force and of matter. One is now a “god” being incarnated in a body of flesh. One has control over the life instinct and death drive inside oneself and inside of others. This is the state of the Christ after the transfiguration. Thus the oriental term of Bodishattva may be considered to be synonymous with the occidental term of Ipsissimus.